Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell LymphomaOverview
Treatments Under Investigation
Transportation Assistance Fund
Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lymphoma occurs when cells of the immune system called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, grow and multiply uncontrollably. Cancerous lymphocytes can travel to many parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood, or other organs, and form a mass called a tumor. The body has two main types of lymphocytes that can develop into lymphomas: B- lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare, aggressive (fast-growing) form of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). While AITL only accounts for one percent to two percent of all NHL cases in the United States, it is one of the more common subtypes of mature T-cell lymphomas. Elderly patients are more likely to have AITL. Symptoms of AITL include high fever, night sweats, skin rash, and autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). As a result of these autoimmune disorders, the body’s immune system does not recognize, and consequently destroys, its own cells and tissues, such as red blood cells (in the case of AIHA) or platelets (in the case of ITP).
Diagnosing AITL requires taking a small sample of the tumor tissue, called a biopsy, and looking at the cells under a microscope. A series of other tests may be done to determine the extent, or stage, of the disease. These can include blood tests, a computed axial tomography (CAT) scan, a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and a bone marrow biopsy.
The majority of patients with AITL are diagnosed with advanced-stage disease, either stage III or stage IV disease. In stage III, affected lymph nodes are found both above and below the diaphragm. In stage IV, one or more organs beyond the lymph nodes are affected, such as the bone, bone marrow, skin, or liver. Less-extensive disease, stage I or II, is rare. Patients with stage I have localized disease that has not spread beyond the tumor, and with stage II, if the cancer has spread, it has affected only a nearby lymph node.
• Bortezomib (Velcade)
• Brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris)
• Fludarabine (Fludara)
• Lenalidomide (Revlimid)
• Panobinostat (Faridak)
• Rituximab (Rituxan)
These clinical trials are in various phases of development. It is critical to remember that today's scientific research is continuously evolving. Treatment options may change as new treatments are discovered and current treatments are improved. Therefore, it is important that patients check with their physician or with the Lymphoma Research Foundation (LRF) for any treatment updates that may have recently emerged.
Disease relapse and infections are common with this cancer. It is important to seek medical attention for fever or other symptoms related to improper functioning of the immune system.
Some treatments can cause long-term effects or late effects, which can vary based on duration and frequency of treatments, age, gender, and the overall health of each patient at the time of treatment. A physician will check for these effects during follow-up care. Visits may become less frequent the longer the disease remains in remission.
Patients and their caregivers are encouraged to keep copies of all medical records and test results as well as information on the types, amounts, and duration of all treatments received. This documentation will be important for keeping track of any effects resulting from treatment or potential disease recurrences.
A lymphoma diagnosis often triggers a range of feelings and raises many concerns. In addition, cancer treatment can cause physical discomfort. Support groups and online message boards can help patients connect with other people who have lymphoma. One-to-one peer support programs, such as LRF's Lymphoma Support Network, match lymphoma survivors (or caregivers) with volunteers who have gone through similar experiences.
LRF T-Cell Lymphoma Transportation Assistance Fund
Lymphoma HelplineProfessional staff members are available to answer your questions and provide individual support to you and your loved ones. Contact our Helpline, available Monday through Friday from 8:00am - 5:00pm Pacific Standard Time (PST). Call (800) 500-9976 or firstname.lastname@example.org.