CAR A type of white blood cell that participates in immune responses by destroying harmful substances or cells. Therapy
Treatments that interact with the immune system. enhances the power of a patient’s One of the body's defense mechanisms. All lymphomas are a disease of the immune system. to attack tumors. An immunotherapy approach, called chimeric Identifying proteins located on the surface of all cells. The immune system uses antigens to determine whether cells are a necessary part of the body or need to be destroyed. receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, uses patients’ own immune cells to treat their Abnormal cell growth that cannot be controlled by the body's natural defenses. Cancerous cells can grow and eventually form tumors..
CAR T-cell therapy provides engineered molecules called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that recognize and destroy antigens present on the surface of lymphoma cells. T cells are removed from patients and genetically modified to produce CARs. The genetically engineered CAR T cells are grown in the laboratory until they number in the billions and are then infused back into the patient.
CAR T-Cell Process
Your T cells are obtained through a process called leukapheresis, which usually takes three to four hours.
- Your blood is removed through an Through the vein..
- Your blood is then passed through a machine that separates your T cells from the other blood cells.
- The rest of your blood cells are returned to your body.
2. T-Cell Engineering
The T cells are sent to a processing center where they are genetically engineered to target your lymphoma.
- The enhanced cells now have chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) that allow the T cells to better recognize your cancer cells.
- The CAR on the surface of the T cells specifically binds to a protein on lymphoma cells.
3. CAR T-Cell Transport
Once enough of the CAR T cells are available at the processing center, the cells are frozen for transport to your certified treatment center.
4. Treatment with drugs to stop the growth of rapidly dividing cancer cells, including lymphoma cells.
A few days prior to your CAR T-cell infusion, you will receive low-dose chemotherapy.
- The chemotherapy suppresses the immune system slightly so that it does not react to your CAR T cells.
- It gives the CAR T cells the chance to grow and fight your lymphoma.
5. CAR T Infusion
A few days after completing chemotherapy, you will receive your CAR T cells at your certified treatment center.
- The infusion of CAR T cells takes less than one hour.
- You may be given acetaminophen (Tylenol) and/or diphenhydramine (Benadryl) before the infusion to prevent or relieve some of the possible side effects.
6. CAR T-Cells Attack the Lymphoma
TOnce the CAR T cells enter your body, they begin to multiply and attack the lymphoma cells.
- It is important to remain closely observed by your healthcare team so that you can be monitored for side effects.
Approved CAR T-Cell Therapies in Lymphoma
Approved CAR T-Cell therapies include:
- Axicabtagene Ciloleucel (Yescarta)
- Treatment targeting CD19 for patients with certain types of relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma after at least two other kinds of treatment. (DLBCL not otherwise specified; primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma; high A method of classifying a tumor on the basis of how aggressively it is growing. B-cell lymphoma; DLBCL arising from FL)
- Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah)
- Treatment targeting CD19 for patients with certain types of relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy. (DLBCL not otherwise specified; high grade B-cell lymphoma; DLBCL arising from FL)
To learn more about CAR T-cell therapy, download the CAR T-Cell Fact Sheet.